Development History of Visual Culture-From Painting to Immersive Content
I discussed ‘Data Visualization and Digital Communication: Designing Data’ in my source review. I discussed contemporary visual culture and media, and briefly discussed the visual culture for the next five years through source review.
With the development of print media and the advent of linear perspective, visual culture developed rapidly. Later, caused by development of optical media, photography and cinematography (film) appeared, which emerged as an alternative to fine art. In the modern times, a visual medium capable of two-way communication called the ‘Internet’ has emerged. This beyond the limitations of visual media tied to specific places, times and spaces. Since then, the development of codecs of images and videos, as well as the development of network speed and latency, have resulted in ‘streaming services’ in company with the real-time sharing and play. The YouTube is best example of that.
The development of these technologies is expected to accelerate the change of visual culture. This is because technology development advances not as a linear curve but as an exponential growth curve. If I look at this paradigm here as a logarithmic graph, we’ve already got on this trajectory. I think now we are in turbulent times until we reach the ‘technical singularities’ of 2045 that are predicted by futurists like ‘Raymond “Ray” Kurzweil’. ‘Technology Singularity’ mean is a hypothetical future point in time when technological growth becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization. Accordingly, art must take various forms in order to reflect and critically view the situation of the times.
In the past, Nam June Paik used a TV monitor as a painter’s canvas, and the work of the artists to paint the paints using brush on the canvas was replaced by the synthesizer. Now it goes beyond just flat TV screens to immersive three-dimensional spaces.
Immersive Content: Reconsideration of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality and Limitations of Modern Visual Culture
Currently, what I am paying attention to as a new form of art is virtual reality. VR, AR, and MR technologies that provide an immersive experience for users are collectively referred to as immersive media and have recently been referred to as Extended Reality (XR). Virtual reality is a technology that enables users to realistically experience situations that are difficult to experience in the real world by expanding and sharing the user’s sensory information in a computer-generated virtual environment. Augmented reality is a technology that provides users with a communication environment and information by synthesizing virtual contents in the real world and real objects.
My interest in the immersive experience was began in 2012 when a start-up called ‘Oculus’ founded by Palmer Lucky and a handful of developers. And they launched ‘Oculus Rift DK1’ in 2012 for developers. And in the second year of interaction design in 2018, I worked on a project called “Mixed Reality”, through this project I was confident that it could be used as a form of art in the future.
This summer ‘Oculus’ launched ‘Oculus Quest’, a wireless virtual reality device. The high-end PC is not needed and the price is low, so it is receiving positive responses from the market. Now, with the advent of the second-generation family of wireless VR, and the positive evaluation of the market, virtual reality devices have gained momentum and can be reached by everyone in the next five years.
And at 11 pm on April 3, 2019, world first commercialization of 5G will bring more attention to VR. The development of networks speed and latency can have a major impact on the development of consumer services and experiences. For example, a cloud streaming service can be used to play graphics calculations (such as resorts and museums) calculated by high-performance computers on low-end devices. If cloud streaming services and virtual reality (or MR) are combined in the future, it is expected that many people will have a more realistic form of content experience at a lower cost. You can see the future of cloud streaming through ‘STADIA’, which is currently being prepared for commercial launched by Google.
If the current visual-based virtual information range is extended to the five senses, in a single user environment, multiple users can share and communicate with the same virtual space without limiting distance. As following this develops into a multi-user environment, it is expected to be further maximized.
In addition, in this year’s ‘Top 10 Strategic Technology For 2019’, Gartner selected technology for immersive experience as a key future technology for building the next generation digital business ecosystem. And IDC estimated the world’s AR / VR SW market size to grow about 44 times from about $ 21 billion on 2016 to about $ 926 billion by 2021. The device-driven hardware market is also expected to grow about five times in 2021 compared to 2017, with total device shipments of more than 90 million, according to CCS Insight forecasts.
Compared to computer games or immersive content that can be immersed in the sophisticated graphics and intense narratives of today, manual viewing of stories on large screens through a home monitor or laptop is being a thing of the past.
Brain-Computer Interface and Virtual Reality
In terms of immersion, no matter how good a video game can be, it can be argued that it cannot be compared with the pleasure or escape of a great story (Dickens or Tolstoy’s novel). But when we look at the data, things are different. In particular, the younger generation today will oppose this claim. Given the dramatic shift in audiences seeking entertainment and rich cultures with interactive games. How long will it take for leading artists to turn into this interesting medium for their works? If full-immersive, wide-area, and 3D motion tracking virtual reality is available to everyone at an affordable price, the trend toward interactive computers in entertainment, education and culture will accelerate.
In addition, as we crave higher levels of intervention and behaviour in games, new devices beyond the keyboard and simple compact controllers are required for access to immersive content in the future. I think the answer is a combination of Brain-Computer Interface and Virtual Reality. Known as BCI (Brain-Computer Interface), an interface system that directly connects a brain and a machine to operate a computer or machine. The BCI technology is implemented by sensing, recognizing, and accepting brain activity through a mechanical device, then analysing the signal through a signalling process and giving commands to input and output devices. The BCI, currently under study, is not a miracle device to read the mind. Depending on the application, it can be used to read a person’s mind, emotion or mental state. Because it is essentially a device for reading human thoughts, it is used in the form of reading the electric nerve signals of brain waves or brain cells and receiving specific patterns as input signals.
Attempts are now being made to fuse with various industries using BCI. The most commercially advanced form now is probably ‘Neuralink’, founded by Elon Musk. The company was created to connect the human brain to the computer, and is expected to work by reading and writing data or using AI aids using electrodes flowing through the brain. In July 2019, we unveiled an interface device consisting of a polymer electrode that can be implanted into the brain and a tiny chip called ‘N1’.
I am trying to implement this BCI practically through the EEG device which can be obtained inexpensively with the development of technology. Through this, I try to work in the form of measuring and responding to the brain waves of viewers in virtual reality. This work can be a task to visualize by measuring the feelings, emotions and concentrations of viewers in the virtual space. In addition, in the field of BCI, they are also experimenting to link virtual reality with EEG. This is a kind of data visualization process, and effective visualization will be left to the designer.
Attempts like as above can help answering about what makes us who we are, such as “How do we perceive, learn, and remember?”, “What are the characteristics of emotions, empathy, and consciousness?”. I also think meaningful conversations will be possible between other areas of knowledge over the brain science and art.
What is the ultimate goal of virtual reality? I think it is ‘reality’. Disconnected from the ‘real’ world outside the VR device and feel like we are actually embodied in the simulation.
This requires a complete level of simulation. Additionally, the quality of the environment constructed in virtual reality varies depending on the computing power of the computer. Current consumer computers performance has limitation. But what if we combine it with the cloud computing services I mentioned earlier and quantum computers that are billions of times the performance of current supercomputers?
The journal was published by Google AI Quantum, led by John Martinis in the journal Nature on October 23, 2019. The 54-Qubit Sycamore processor is the first quantum computer to achieve a ‘quantum supremacy’. Quantum supremacy is a turning point where quantum computers can do more than the most powerful existing supercomputers. In a nutshell, the computational problems that traditional supercomputer processors had to perform over 10,000 years can be solved in just 200 seconds. It will also contribute to the development of graphical operations that require high computing power.
‘Beauty’ of Immersive Contents
In the future, the new immersive media will be focused on user’s experience and participation than just seeing. In this respect, what is the ‘beauty’ of ‘Immersive Contents’ mediated through spatial experiences? I think we need to discuss this. This is because the discussion on ‘beauty’ is easy to use in reaching out to the general public, and it becomes popularity that anyone can understand. It will be possible through the visual language, the universal language of mankind. Then, what is it necessary for the public to become viewers as creative observers in the new interactive art of immersive content?
I think first need a process to understand that visual perception is a complex mental process, same as abstract artists understood such as Mondrian, Roscoe and Morris Lewis. They have extensively experimented with ways to mobilize various aspects of the viewer’s attention and perception. Mondrian and Roscoe drew attention to art in a psychologically new way by extracting form and colour. Like this dialogue, we need to understand how the brain responds to works of art and how we deal with unconscious-conscious perceptions, emotions and empathy. But, how is this conversation useful for artists?
Since the beginning of modern scientific experiments in the 15th and 16th centuries, artists have been interested in science. Filippo Brunelleschi, Masaccio, Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Arnold Schönberg and works of abstraction this is an example. Just as Leonardo da Vinci used human anatomy knowledge to describe the human body in a more overwhelming and accurate way. Modern artists can also create new art forms and other ways of expression based on a new understanding of the biology of perception and the biology of emotions and empathy.
From this perspective, the 4th year project will examine the ‘beauty’ of the BCI-VR format that combines the brainwaves and virtual reality of the viewers and the leap to a new medium. ‘beauty’ has long been considered important in art, and nowadays it is possible to visualize changes in the brain and present them in a more objective form. Therefore, I think that ‘beauty’ can be solved through visual perception and awareness.
Can the virtual space of virtual reality lead us to change our perceptions, feelings and empathy? this is part of the project question. If we study emotional reactions, visual reactions, and minds when humans see and feel something, they can make us perceive unpredictable relationships in the relationship between art, emotion, and mind. As Leonardo da Vinci did, I think this process can push the horizons of art one step further. We can better understand ourselves by incorporating a deeper understanding of how we respond to art and how to create it. This process helps the vision to understand the part of the viewer through the knowledge acquired through the creative process, and is the starting point for productive dialogue between brain science and art.
Immediate integration between aesthetics and the science of the new mind will be difficult, but new conversations may begin and sooner or later have a cumulative effect among those who are interested in the many aspects of the science of perception and emotion.
What if we ask about the boundary between virtual and reality in the BCI-VR form above? I think we need to discuss how we perceive the world. What does virtual reality close to reality mean for viewers?
Basically, immersive content is virtual. According to Jean Baudrillard’s argument, virtual is a simulacre as non-existent symbols. And according to Pierre Levy, it is opposed to reality but can be interpreted as a concept for the creation of reality. Virtual is an extraordinary experience. The virtual experience that tangible content provides is based on extraordinary. In other words, even if their experiences are fascinating, exotic and immersive, they are only temporary, illusions that seem to exist. Festivals also same as them. The festivals provide a deviant experience by allowing visitors to experience a variety of viewing and experiential elements that are not seen in everyday life and the local culture. Particularly, the experiential festivals make you forget the bleak daily life of reality by deviating from the rules and existing social relations or stimulating nostalgia about the past.
Garden an Arcadia – The Image of Utopia and the Truth of Virtual Reality
The pleasure of virtual reality is, ‘walking in the forest and look at the dense leaves’, ‘watching the leaves drift in the wind’, ‘listening to the sound of birds and my rustling footstep’, The key things of pleasure is knowing that moment only exists for me entirely. I enjoy the moments that are unique in time and space, the moments that will never come back.
From this point of view, the content of this project was selected with the theme of ‘garden’ focusing on visual perception, emotion and art. The form of garden is a paradise on earth and looks like Arcadia (Utopia). From a long time ago, most people dreamed of an ideal and liveable society, and they developed to achieve it. In particular, the West describes this world as a mythical world called ‘Arcadia’.
In order to embody the imaginary ideal on the real world, many people have been thinking creatively, and as a result, the ‘garden’ that mimics nature appears. The garden is usually considered as a heaven of real world. People experience various things through elements in the garden. However, the experience through the content of the garden is an object that cannot be owned in reality, and it is cognitively satisfied, and the garden can be treated the same as the virtual reality. So, while these experiences are fascinating, different and immersive, they are only temporary illusions that seem to exist
In addition, garden art is a multi-sensory art that allows people to experience emotion, its aesthetic correlation, through movement. Garden art moves include: 1. Practical and explicit movements of natural elements (wind-shaking leaves, water stirred by boats), 2. Visitor movements made when experiencing the garden, 3. Day, season, weather there are relatively slow movements made by changes in the world, 4. There are implicit and metaphorical movements made by ancestors and monuments. For walkers walking through the forest, new ways of perceiving landscapes are created as trees seems to move. The movements listed above result in a movement called ’emotion’ that touches the mind and mind of the viewer. ‘Hirschfeld’ said that garden art is a multi-sensory art that allows people to experience the aesthetic correlation of emotion through movement and to use the five senses.
I wish in this virtual space, we can find the emotion, understanding empathy, and visual perception of the viewer’s participation find a new and unexpected relationship?
There is an example of how gardens have been used by digital or interactive artists. There is Osmose (1995) by Char Davies, a prototype of a virtual garden, and TV Garden (1974) by Nam-June Paik, a media artist. The garden has been used as the material of art. And their works gave fresh inspiration to the direction of my work.
The distance feels very far, but I tried to redefine it as a one worldview by experiencing the essence of technology and nature through immersive content. Part of the attempt is to include virtual objects represented by nature in the virtual natural ecosystem. Because I think there was a need for a new worldview and life-style where was a technological revolution.
What Kind of User Experience Does This Project Aim for? With Human Visual Perception and Emotion
The project was influenced by the Sense & Sensibility project, a third-year project in the interaction design. In addition, using the third year’s source review ‘Data Visualization and Digital Communication: Designing Data’, I decided to do ‘Visual Culture and Immersive Content: Viewers Perception and Emotion, and Direction of Contemporary Visual Culture’.
The third year Sense & Sensibility project, which influenced me a lot, was a project about ‘Consciousness’ using computer vision. In this project I researched about what is meaning of consciousness, intelligence and awareness on the humans and machines. I examined what consciousness and perception are, rationality, understanding, and empathy.
The curiosity about human visual perception and emotions that began here led to the fourth-year project. In the project, “is the study of visual perception and emotion and virtual reality worthwhile as a new visual culture and art form in the future?” was added. Specifically, “by analysing the brain waves of the viewer’s visual perception input, can the viewers be visually satisfied and aesthetically satisfied?” Also, I can question for “how does this mechanism work?”
Through them I can moved on next question “What kind of user experience does this ultimately aim for?” For example, what kind of effects occur inside the virtual reality, and what types of experiences the viewers experience are visual, auditory, and tactile?
Also, what kinds of experience will be added? For example, it may be a task using motion tracking of a hand and generate an effect by detecting a position according to a viewer’s viewing direction.
One of the ultimate goals is to research how the brain responds to the art work, and how viewers deal with the process of unconscious – conscious perception – emotion – empathy.
About tools – Oculus Quest and EEG (electroencephalogram)
The technical processing part is divided into two. One would be a physical tool such as a virtual reality device, an EEG or a high-performance computer. The other is to build a virtual reality environment.
In the VR devices will use ‘Oculus Quest’, a virtual reality device in the form of a wireless device. I will also work with EEG (eletroencephalogram) as a brain waves measurement device. EEG refers to the flow of electricity that occurs when signals are transmitted between the nerves in the nervous system. It varies depending on the state of mind and body and is the most important indicator of brain activity. Neurophysiological measurements of the brain’s electrical activity are recorded through electrodes attached to the scalp.
After investigating of EEG, the price and the number of sensors, I decided to work with a product called Muse2 from Interaxon. Others include NeuroSky, Emotiv, OCZ, and OpenBCI, all of which are accessible to consumers.
The Muse2 has four-EEG sensors that can be measured in the frontal and temporal lobes. The position of the electrodes is in the TP9, AF7, AF8, TP10 according to the international standard arrangement 10-20 system (EEG).
The above electrodes data can be collected by the viewer’s brain waves, which can be visualized into five types. Delta wave in 1 ~ 4Hz zone, Theta wave in 4 ~ 8Hz zone, Alpha wave in 7.5 ~ 13Hz zone, Beta wave in 13 ~ 30Hz zone, Gamma wave in 30 ~ 44Hz zone. Each brain wave type represents a different state.
Alpha Wave – Alpha waves are brain waves that occur at rest and at rest in the band 8-13 Hz. It appears mainly in the relaxed state and increases in amplitude in the relaxed state. For normal people, an increase in alpha waves means meditation, peace, and a calm internal state.
Beta Wave – A band of 13–30 Hz that is produced by awakening, tension, or stress.
Delta Wave – An EEG that occurs in deep sleep in the band 0.5 to 4 Hz.
Gamma Wave – Generates high cognitive activity in the band above 30 Hz. Usually a waveform that manifests itself when enlightenment or insight occurs.
Theta waves – bands of 4–8 Hz, related to creativity, meditation and drowsiness. Appears when you’re sleepy and awake in a light sleep state. Theta waves are often defined as the boundary between perception and dreams.
If viewers observe random object on the environment ‘A’ of virtual reality, viewers brain waves will change. Someone who concentrates somewhere, someone who has realized something, or who is stressed out by the motion sickness of virtual reality. I can work on these emotional reactions by associating them with objects and effects in virtual reality.
Now that you have looked at the hardware for the physical implementation of your work, it’s time to look at the internal content, or software. It is for how to combine the virtual garden and the data measuring the emotions and consciousness of the viewers. In conclusion, everything will ultimately be a single virtual environment using a tool called ‘Unity’. Unity is a game engine that provides development environments for 3D and 2D video games, and an integrated authoring tool for creating interactive content such as 3D animation, architectural visualization, and virtual reality.
Picturesque and Form of Garden as a Content
Before this, it is necessary to design form of the garden. I plan to create a garden with terms that translate the form of the garden into a ‘picturesque’ style. We are immersed in the various forms of nature and their infinite forms. The landscape created by nature changes at every moment, and at some point, it looks ‘beautiful as a picture’. The philosophical scenery that enchants the soul is created from the “picturesque” scenery that enchants the human eye.
The English garden captures this term “picturesque.” Based on the theory of 18th-century British landscape gardens, picturesque expresses more natural landscapes or borrows from garden landscapes by reflecting the natural hobby of gardening.
There’s another reason why I have taken ‘Picturesque’ aesthetic as a keyword. In this period, when picturesque appeared, the visual media such as panoramas, dioramas, stereoscopes, photographs, and movies were invented. They expand the public’s senses, and the way of viewing was trying to change. The visual system, based on the linear perspective, was transformed into the ‘visuality of movement’, which is summarized as ‘fluid vision’ and ‘perspective relativity’ under the influence of new optical instruments that appeared in the 19th century.
I’m going to use picturesque reductionism, back to aesthetics as BCI-virtual reality. It can be used for perception of a line, a complex scene, and a work of art that evoke emotion. Or, by reductionism the shape, the elements of nature, whether in form, line, colour or light, can be removed and perceived by the viewer. This separate element may stimulate several aspects in a direction that complex images cannot. In this project, it is possible to use reductionism to elicit the viewer’s new perceptual and emotional reactions.
About Software and Future Direction
Some of gardens I will actually planned to do the targets of the conduct field surveys, and then model internal elements or objects through 3D tools such as Maya and Blender.
I will add these objects to Unity’s assets, and then connect the viewer’s brainwaves in the order of EEG-Analytical Programs-Unity. The interconnection is made up of what is called “OSC – Open Sound Control”. If your devices are connected to the same network, you can share data with unique IP addresses and pod settings.
Currently, I have connected the between EEG and Unity to test whether data is normally sent and received, and I have mapped the received data with a test object to change the colour of the object or rotate it.
Additionally, interactions can be built using the viewer’s hand. Currently only controller interaction is possible, but it will be possible to create interactions by tracking the viewer’s hands in the future. For example, an effect that triggers when a viewer’s hand is within a certain distance from an object, or an interface control inside of the virtual reality.
Boundary of Reality and Virtual – Plato Idea and Jean Baudrillard’s Simulacre Theory
The current direction and current status of the project is the same as mentioned above. In the above discussion, it is meaningful to recognize and prepare for the ‘beauty’ and aesthetics of the new visual culture in the future. Also, I think it’s worth it to finally introduce these things to the public. In addition, this section will discuss critical discussions of virtual reality and boundary of reality and virtual.
In critical discussions, we might ask questions about imaginary boundaries simile using Simulacrum theory. Which is the essence and what is the concept of the original and the illusion. I think this discussion can take a step back from virtual space and analyse it critically.
Simulacrum was originally a concept defined by Plato. According to Plato, the inhabited world consists original form of an idea, a replica reality, and a Simulacrum which is duplication of replica.
The cloned is farther away from the idea as it is replicated. For this reason, Plato regarded Simulacrum as having no value at all because it could not be same existence in the same place even one-moment and not being present.
Simulacrum is typically discussed between Jean Baudrillard and Gilles Deleuze. The definition is divided into two. Baudrillard’s Simulacrum is the result of Simulation and refers to artefacts that make objects that do not exist as if they exist. Deleuze’s definition is different from simple cloning because he sees the definition of Simulacrum as not merely a clone, but as an independent entity, an original self-identity that goes beyond the real rather than the real.
According to Simulacrum’s theory, virtual and reality coexist, but they are opposed. ‘Virtual’, which is an image of ‘reality’ that is replicated from the original, is a reproduction of replication. The work of this reproduction is getting far from reality. This study attempts to explain this based on Baudrillard’s Simulacrum theory. Baudrillard said about the image:
– The first stage is a faithful image/copy, where we believe, and it may even be correct, that a sign is a “reflection of a profound reality”
– The second stage is perversion of reality, this is where we come to believe the sign to be an unfaithful copy, which “masks and denatures” reality as an “evil appearance—it is of the order of maleficence”.
-The third stage masks the absence of a profound reality, where the sign pretends to be a faithful copy, but it is a copy with no original.
– The fourth stage is pure simulacrum, in which the simulacrum has no relationship to any reality whatsoever.
Baudrillard said that while modern times are controlled by industrial capitalism, postmodern ages are information ages dominated by models, codes, media, and cybernetics. As a social and cultural phenomenon, the oversaturation and saturation of information from various media and images from media dramatically change the value and meaning of existing objects. The meaning of things is lost, yielding a more real derivative (simulacrum).
Era of Simulation
The virtual reality implementation in my work is a duplicate of the illusion and also a reality more real than reality. Modern society no longer consumes things as use values or exchange values, but as images and symbols. Today, cultural phenomena are appearing in the Simulation process of producing and manipulating new images by synthesizing them with TV, computer and media information.
The imaginary images themselves create new realities and the images interact with each other and lead to the simulation process. Images only exist in the circulation of simulation. In the simulation era, it is filled with images of coping with reality, then they swallow everything up. The image is no longer exchanged with reality, it is a simulacrum that is exchanged with itself in an endless circulation with no directions or borders from anywhere. The world full of signs and images without reality is the era of where we live: simulacrum and simulation.
As such, the attributes of the image that cope with reality bring the media attribution that are the representation of the medium symbol in my project. The visual media, which makes us believe that we have experienced even if we do not experience it, makes us feel the reality of modern people who are in a passively mixed situation in the constantly incoming information and images.
It is the world of simulacre that cannot distinguish which one is the original or the duplicate, rather than which one thing becomes the original of them. In fact, are not we experiencing this Simulacre world every day?
As Walter Benjamin said that replicating a work of art equally in ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’ puts it into a new context, the original meaning of the work is completely different. We need to think like that. Benjamin feared that in the age of replicating artefacts, replicas whose original context had been removed would not only undermine the original value but also transform the meaning. As an extension of this concern, the implications of reality cloning give us some surprises, but we should think about ‘we are not yet ready for the future’.
The motivation for this study is that ‘beauty’, which is a form of art, is a very important issue in visual culture, and ‘beauty’ is also an essential element in the immersive visual culture. In addition, I think that ‘the beauty’ of the tangible visual culture can be achieved through discussions focused on the share of the viewers discussed above and the viewers’ visual perception and emotion analysis.
Through this project I am expected to contribute greatly to the design of user experience in interaction design and the study of data visualization. On Jun 2020, this project will be produced and exhibited with concrete content, aiming to create an interest in other design fields and future participation in the immersive visual culture. And I think it’s a good opportunity to introduce the future direction of visual culture to people in fields not related to this field.
As I mentioned, the world is changing faster than in the past, and art is flowing in this direction as more people seek interaction.
We are living in the era of surrounded by technology, things can be reproduced in new shapes and sizes, and in high resolution it is easy to get the real sense of reality, the ultimate goal of the simulation experience. In these times, you can enjoy a rich experience for education, entertainment, and self-understanding. In the meantime, there is a risk that the value of authenticity will be reduced by blurring the boundaries of valuable, unique and temporary real experiences and persuasive and simple replicas. It is obvious that this can cause a metaphysical blow to us.
With new technologies readily available, everyday understandings of what is real and what is not real will be different. We have evolved over thousands of years, experiencing only in our physical space. But now we have thrown this bridle and entered a new phase of civilization.
We can discover that science and art can interact and enrich each other. The two subjects offer their own views on the essential question of the human condition and they attempt to begin a conversation that has never been before in the new form of modern art. If this effort is successful, it will help us to understand more deeply how we respond to art and even how we create it.
Science seeks objectivity and strives to accurately describe the characteristics of things. Assuming that art’s perception is the interpretation of sensory experience, scientific analysis examines in principle how the brain perceives and responds to art. It can also answer how this experience transcends the everyday perceptions of the world around us. The new mind science will continue to deepen our understanding of ourselves by building bridges between brain science, new forms of visual culture, and other fields of knowledge.