The basic concept of virtual reality means ‘an artificial environment similar to reality but not real.’ Therefore, in a broad sense, visual media such as games such as simulator games and second life can also be included in virtual reality. However, generally speaking, virtual reality means technology that enables spatial and temporal experiences close to reality by directly acting on the five senses of the user, beyond simply implementing a virtual space. The sub-concept is ‘Simulated Reality’, which is a simulation of virtual reality as close as possible to reality. Virtual reality can distinguish between “real” and “virtual,” but there is a difference that simulated reality is so realistic that makes impossible to distinguish what is real or virtual.
When you investigate the word ‘virtual reality’, you can see a somewhat unique meaning. ‘Reality’ means ‘a real (looks like) world in which an object actually exists, or a phenomenon unfolds’. However, ‘virtual’ means ‘things that are not real but falsely built’. Putting them together, it becomes ‘a real world that is not real but has been built in a false sense’, and a ‘real world that does not exist but exists’ by if we removed the intermediate modifier. Considering on this point, some people use that concept as a ‘virtual world’.
However, from a different perspective, it is a convincing term. Consider the fact that ‘virtual reality’ is a virtual world that allows you to see, hear and feel. Although, the substance is a faked world, but on the one hand it is clearly visible and heard, and as technology advances it may be felt by our senses. This is “real world” (reality) because it is felt through the senses, not the user’s illusion. In this interpretation, “virtual reality” is not a strange word. Virtual also means ‘substantially effective’ or ‘false.’ It also means “a reality has no substance but, that provides an experience to user that can be sensed practically by a illusion.”
The concept of virtual reality dates back to the 19th century. The first prototype of virtual reality was developed in 1852, it was called a “stereoscope”. That is an origin of 3D display technology today. In literature, we can find similar concept of virtual reality in the ‘Brave New World’, an SF dystopian novel published by Aldous Huxley in 1932, something like as ‘haptic technology screen’. And, the more advanced virtual reality concept was introduced from the ‘Pygmalion’s Spectacles’. The book was written in 1935 by American science fiction writer Stanley G. Weinbaum. In this book includes a direct depiction of holographic technology, virtual realization of touch and smell.
The world’s first virtual reality original technology source was beginning in 1968 where U.S. University of Utah’s Ivan Sunderland studied of head mounted displays (HMD). A year later, when the NASA began its Apollo project, virtual reality technology developed fast and it used as a computer interaction reaction system to train its crew in 1969. However, in the 1985 ‘virtual reality’ word was became spread to the public widely.
After this, in the late 1980s and late 1990s, the public’s attention in virtual reality technology was extremely high. Starting with the appearance of the science fiction masterpiece ‘Ghost in the Shell’, which dealt with virtual reality in 1989, in the 1990s, works featuring virtual reality in popular culture such as ‘Matrix’ and ‘Total Recall’ continued to appear. The image of “virtual reality enjoyed using HMD, tactile gloves, and olfactory simulators” was also established at this time. It can be said that the technical and social image of virtual reality was actually established at this time.
Nevertheless, virtual reality technology still hard to overcome in the hardware performance and software area at that time and there were many restricts also. Ignoring technical conditions, devices released reason only by the public’s expectations were nothing more than a failure case like ‘Virtual Boy’. For this reason, in the early 2000s, interest in virtual reality technology diminished for a while.
The resurgence of public demand and interest in virtual reality technology is due to the development of subculture. Since 2007, with Crysis Engine as the starting point, the rapid development of 3D game graphics, and broadcasting Sword Art Online anime, etc., can be seen as the steadily demand for virtual reality games. Crucially, the most influential thing is that in 2015, an environment where consumers can purchase virtual reality devices such as Oculus, HTC Vive, PlayStation VR, and Gear VR at a reasonable price point.
The three elements necessary for realizing virtual reality are three-dimensional spatiality, real-time interaction, and immersion. To implement each element, a number of input / output devices that stimulate the five senses, such as computer graphics technology, network communication technology, and HMD, are required. VR can be established and developed by developing technologies for these things more. Considering that the network communication technology has virtually no difficulty in realizing virtual reality even with current technology, it can be considered that the technologies that actually require development to implement virtual reality are computer graphic technology and input / output device technology.
3.1) Computational Instrument
There are many factors that determine the realism and performance of real-time graphics technology, but basically three factors are ‘resolution, modeling, and rendering’.
Indicates the degree of sharpness of the output image. It can be determined by how many pixels, which are the basic units of the screen, are used. The higher the resolution require more computational power for the sharper the output.
With existing real-time rendering technology, it is difficult to stably output higher resolution results than FULL HD in home devices such as PCs and game consoles.
On the other hand, the human eye has a resolution of up to 120 million megapixels per side. This is about 14.5 times better than resolution of 4K and 58 times better than resolution of Full HD. If you correspond to the 16.9 ratio, which is the ratio used in the HD standard, the resolution is close to 16K resolution (15360 x 8640, 132.27 million pixels), which is 64 times that of Full HD.
If this is applied to VR, in the case of existing 1280x1440x2 and 1080x1200x2 resolution VR devices that are currently 90 ~ 110 degrees, the mosquito net phenomenon will be less felt when an upgraded VR HMD device of 2160x2160x2 appears, but the viewing angle problem remains. In the range of the viewing angle of the current generation, a resolution of 6144x6144x2 or higher is required even at 100 degrees, and in the case of a viewing angle range of 180 degrees horizontal and 180 degrees horizontal and 180 degrees vertical for both eyes, the resolution must expected be 10956x10956x2 to fit the eye level of a user familiar with Full HD. However, in addition to the resolution problem, there is also a view angle realization problem, so in order to realistically compromise with the price, it is better to raise the resolution of the screen, which has to be saw without moving the eyeballing.
As the number of polygons entering modeling increases, detailed expression becomes possible. However, the real-time computational power is also required. A polygon is a basic unit that composes a 3D object in computer graphics, and is a triangle made up of three coordinates.
However, the future real-time 3D rendering technology cannot be considered to consist of polygon-based modeling, and we should be considered when using a voxel (Volume + Pixel) engine.
Virtual reality basically uses interaction with the user as a basic element, and non-rendering image technology using a camera or a pre-rendering technique that requires a long computation time cannot be considered. Therefore, 3D spatial realization of virtual reality relies entirely on real-time rendering technology. Therefore, the development of shading and mapping-related technologies supporting this is essential
Binaural Effect – It means the effect that causes the listener to feel as if they are listening to the actual sound due to the phase difference of the sound source.
3.2.2) Input / Output Devices
As an input device for virtual reality, unlike traditional input tools such as a keyboard and a mouse, devices that can directly recognize a user’s physical activity are used.
220.127.116.11) Motion Capture
Motion capture (sometimes referred as mo-cap or mocap, for short) is the process of recording the movement of objects or people. It is used in military, entertainment, sports, medical applications, and for validation of computer vision and robotics.
- Will Remote
- Play station Camera
18.104.22.168) Omnidirectional Treadmills
Omnidirectional Treadmills refers to a device that allows a user to input a walking or jumping movement into a virtual reality device even in a small space by using a treadmill capable of moving in all directions 360 degrees. Some products can detect jump motions. Almost all products have a footrest and a lumbar support, because the user’s movement can be fixed so that the foot moves only on the footrest.
The above-described motion capture device can be used only in a range recognizable by the motion capture camera. However, omnidirectional treadmills may be a solution to space constraints.
Since it is a device that provides users with a virtual reality device to experience the space of virtual reality, it is essential to create an immersive feeling through the use of HMD. Buying an omnidirectional treadmill and playing a game looking at the monitor is just playing with exercise equipment. However, it has not yet reached the activation stage due to concerns about floor noise, high prices, and insufficient content.
- Strider VR
- Virtuix Omni
- Cyberith Virtualizer
- Kat Walk
The treadmill is a passive treadmill designed so that the sole of the foot slides on the footrest. ‘Vertuix Omni’ requires special shoes, and ‘Cyberith Virtualizer’ and ‘Kat Walk’ do not have special shoes. In the case of ‘Vertuix Omni’, it works on the principle of realizing movement through the movement of the wheels under the dedicated shoes. In the case of ‘Kat Walk’, there are no special shoes, but there are additional devices to be worn on the shoes. In the case of ‘Strider VR’, a number of marbles are embedded in the foothold, and the movement of the marbles is used to grasp the user’s movement while the foothold itself rotates.
Unlike the above products, Infinadeck is an active treadmill with a moving foothold. There is no problem in motion input even when walking diagonally or curvedly because the rotation axis installed on each footboard is orthogonal. At the same time, the user can feel the feeling of stepping on the floor and pushing it back, so it conveys the feeling of walking more clearly than other treadmills. The problem is a big problem due to the complex mechanical structure. The product is still in development, so the size and weight issues can be improved.
22.214.171.124) Brain Computer Interface
126.96.36.199) HMD (Visual and Hearing)
A head-mounted display (HMD) is a display device, worn on the head or as part of a helmet (See Helmet-mounted display for aviation applications), that has a small display optic in front of one (monocular HMD) or each eye (binocular HMD). An HMD has many uses including gaming, aviation, engineering, and medicine .Virtual reality headsets are HMDs combined with IMUs. There is also an optical head-mounted display (OHMD), which is a wearable display that can reflect projected images and allows a user to see through it.
Low-cost HMD devices are available for use with 3D games and entertainment applications. One of the first commercially available HMDs was the Forte VFX1 which was announced at Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in 1994. The VFX-1 had stereoscopic displays, 3-axis head-tracking, and stereo headphones. Another pioneer in this field was Sony, which released the Glasstron in 1997. It had as an optional accessory a positional sensor which permitted the user to view the surroundings, with the perspective moving as the head moved, providing a deep sense of immersion. One novel application of this technology was in the game MechWarrior 2, which permitted users of the Sony Glasstron or Virtual I/O’s iGlasses to adopt a new visual perspective from inside the cockpit of the craft, using their own eyes as visual and seeing the battlefield through their craft’s own cockpit.
Many brands of video glasses can be connected to modern video and DSLR cameras, making them applicable as a new age monitor. As a result of the glasses ability to block out ambient light, filmmakers and photographers are able to see clearer presentations of their live images.
The Oculus Rift is a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display created by Palmer Luckey that the company Oculus VR is developing for virtual reality simulations and video game]. The HTC Vive is a virtual reality head-mounted display. The headset is produced by a collaboration between Valve and HTC, with its defining feature being precision room-scale tracking, and high-precision motion controllers. The PlayStation VR is the only virtual reality headset for gaming consoles, dedicated for the PlayStation 4. Windows Mixed Reality is a platform developed by Microsoft which includes a wide range of headsets produced by HP, Samsung, and others and is capable of playing most HTC Vive games. It uses only inside-out tracking for its controllers.
It is an output device that allows you to feel the feeling, temperature, and sensation of holding a real object.
- Hands Omni
188.8.131.52) Smell and Taste
4. Future VR
Since 2015, consumer VR devices such as Gear VR, Oculus Rift, and HTC VIVE have been released, and the VR market has begun to approach normal people in real. Also, as time passed, hardware performance was sacrificed, such as PlayStation VR and Oculus Quest, but products that did not require complex sensors to be pre-installed or require expensive high-performance PCs have appeared.
There are many skeptics about VR game markets. VR HMD requires a separate hardware expenditure and requires relatively large space. Cause of the reasons, the VR game’s directing contents will not as new, it may end up at the amusement park’s attraction level. Of course, there have been many claims that the judgment is too early, as it has only been 3-4 years since the consumer VR market was born. However, considering the case of 3D TV, “still judgment is too early” comments only has been repeated, and the market has finally collapsed. If there is a good TV in the house, there was no reason to pay extra for expensive 3D function.
However, most people are satisfied with PC, mobile, and console games, so if they are willing to pay more money and can’t give a reason to buy VR equipment, the market will hard to expand. Gone are the days when everyone is excited about new IT products. A few decades ago, everyone imagined that they would ride in a flying car, but just as they have not escaped from tires yet, VR depicted in science fiction movies and the like can be just an imagination.
At first glance, about the drawbacks that 3D TVs were inferior to that of regular TVs may seem to be same from those of current VR devices. And, in the pessimistic opinions about the existing VR, unusually there are many cases in which a competitor of a virtual reality device is viewed as a monitor or a VR device is considered to be an evolution of a flat-panel monitor.
This is may reminiscent of the confrontation between “head-mounted display and flat-panel display” as in the composition of “3D TV vs 2D TV”. Thus, they are expected that VR devices will also fail, like as 3D TV was defeated in the market a few years ago.
However, VR devices do not aim onto replace the role of flat panel displays. VR devices can coexist with current computer equipment. VR devices can more effectively imitate the real world that the current computer doing.
Currently we were almost blinded by familiarity, we are so skilled in the combination of monitors, keyboards and mice that we are free to handle the keyboard and mouse as if an experienced car racer is driving his own car. However, the keyboard and mouse are never peripherals optimized for human physical interaction. The same is true for monitors. Digital content, especially games, constantly tried to imitate the interaction of reality in different ways, and the process was repeated for decades and consumers accepted them.
However now, is there anyone who questioning about “I am moving and rotating a mouse but why inside game character is moved?” and “Are there any people who now question the ‘WASD’ movement method?”. Some of male players in their 20’s and 40’s long been the dominant population of games, they were really good at shooting with a mouse in FPS games, even they are well with a joystick. However, gamer who are accustomed to hard play are unaware of the fact that they rarely encounter games of that genre, or that those who do not play computer games are not able to adapt to the non-intuitiveness of the fast and sophisticated mouse aiming method. In this situation, I think if VR interaction technology can be refined with the help of various developers, it can play a role in providing a much more human-friendly interface in the long term.
The VR game market has a small share, so it is meaningless to seek the statistics compared to the PC market. Most gamer prefer to play games that sit comfortably on the sofa / lay on the sofa, rather than having to wear a heavy VR device and move around to taste realistic graphics. Moreover, most of Steam’s current VR contents are not of high quality. Of course, even when Steam opened its doors to indie developers, the quality of the overall content fell for a few years. Clearly, many VR content now has a fundamental flaw that is difficult to fix. So, there are only a few high-quality games like ‘Job Simulator’, ‘SUPERHOT VR’, ‘Arizona Sunshine’ and ‘Beat Saber’.
Perhaps the interface hasn’t been studied enough, so VR game developers can’t figure out exactly how far VR devices game can do it. Even AAA game developers just move the same control method from PC games to VR games without any further consideration. So, it is natural happen that 3D motion sickness occurs simply by pressing a button and moving the location.
Although it has become much cheaper, the price of expensive VR devices still holds ankle for the average consumer. The price of HTC VIVE and Oculus Rift has dropped to less than $ 500. But PC VR games required at least 90 frames per second. Because, over that frames people does not feel VR sickness. And, It is also a burden for consumers. Due to the above, sales of VR headsets in 2018 fell by a third of 2017. In addition, the VR game production cost is about twice that of a regular game, so it is difficult for the game maker to leave a margin.
In order to solve the two chronic problems of demanding a high-end PC and being expensive, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg poured capital from the SNS business into VR device and content development and spared no effort to support development for VR popularization. The new plan for Zuckerberg’s business expansion is the VR industry. As part of that effort, Oculus Quest, which does not require a PC, was released in 2019 for $ 399. And also HTC ViVE released HTC VIVE Cosmos in 2019.
It is a historical fact of in the IT world somthing called “failed technologies” is that always cannot beyond from the first generation. In order for virtual reality devices to survive in the future, it is necessary to overcome not only technical factors such as weight and performance, but also external factors such as price, content provision, and marketing.
In addition, VR developers will have to abandon the neglect of bringing the PC interaction method as it is and build a new VR-only interface to provide an irreplaceable experience. Like as ‘Doom’ and ‘Half Life’. Only then will VR technology become a fascinating success story by establishing a new incomplete link between the real world and virtual reality.
However, there is one genre that has been properly applied and settled. This is the racing / driving genre. Due to the nature of the driving game, it is a game where you sit on the seat and, so it is easy to use the HMD, and it is possible to completely solve the problem that the viewing angle is narrow when playing in the first person mode. In addition, it is possible to completely solve the problem of a narrow viewing angle when playing in the first-person mode in VR. In addition, many of the famous driving games support VR mode. Playing in VR is one of the few genres that is more beneficial than watching a flat monitor. No matter how bad the VR business is, there is a possibility of surviving in these areas with strong simulation tendencies.
5. Spatial content
Space based content is virtual. ‘Virtual is simulacre as a non-existent symbols’ according to Jean Baudrillard’s discussion. According to Pierre Levy, ‘it is opposed with reality, but can be interpreted as a concept for the creation of reality’. The museum provides artistic inspiration through exhibits that are not easily accessible, theme parks are full of dreams and fantasy stories, and festivals enable deviation through a variety of features and entertainment that cannot be seen in everyday life.
‘Virtual’ Spatial content
In the space based content, cultural materials are embodied using space as a medium, and inside of space visitors can do various experience. Visitors are ‘go there’, where museums, theme parks, and festivals. That space seems to exist in the reality. Visitors walk in the space, and in some cases experience using touch, but the essence aspect is virtual. The term ‘virtual’ means to a false phenomenon that subjectively seems real but objectively does not exist. Virtual is an unusual phenomenon.
This means that since the content is an experiential products, it is an object that cannot be actually owned and is an object that is cognitively satisfied only. Their experiences progress in the real spaces such as land and buildings, but this is not ‘reality’ or ‘real existence, that is, reality’. A series of experiences, such as artificially produced exhibitions, video reproduction, attractions, parades, shows, etc., consist of museums, theme parks, festivals, etc., but they are not real. In other words, although their experiences are fascinating, unusual and immersive, they are only temporary, illusions that appear to really exist.
Jean Baudrillard’s ‘simulacre’
Jean Baudrillard defines this era as a society dominated by simulation and imagery, and as a perfect virtual world where reality no longer exists. Furthermore, it claims that reality is a perfect virtual world that no longer exists. This ‘virtual’ is the concept that there is no original that can be indicated, and only the simulation logic is works and exist. This is the concept of simulacre proposed by Baudrillard.
However, Simulacre is not unrealistic. Rather, it becomes hyperrealism. This is because it tends to be more realistic than reality, or it takes the form of a particular manufactured product (Connor, 1997, p.65). In other words, the Baudrillard simulacre refers to a situation where the virtual symbol replaces the object of reality, and the relationship between the imitation and the real object to indicate the object becomes ambiguous. He argues that in this situation, a virtual symbol that is more realistic than reality replaces reality.
Baudrillard also recently discussed most of the popular culture called content from this perspective. According to his logic, all contents such as movies, broadcasts, advertisements, and games are the hyper-reality created by simulations. n reviewing Marshall McLuhan’s thesis, “The medium is the message,” he argues that it is not real, not just the content of the media, but also the media itself.
Baudrillard’s argument is a critical discussion of the realization of media and the reorganization of communication and consumption patterns through media. In connection with the virtuality of spatial content, Baudrillard reveals that Disneyland is the perfect model for simulacre and it is for a play of illusion and fantasy. In particular, he argues that Disneyland is being presented as an imaginary world to make real world is truth (Baudrillard, 1981, pp. 39-40).
What visitors experience at theme parks, museums, and festivals is a virtual experience, not a real experience. These spaces offer a variety of things to see and enjoy, such as various images and videos, but their experiences are not real, but virtual experiences expressed on a specific story or theme.
Pierre Levy’s “virtual”
According to Pierre Levy, imagination is not a confrontation with existence, but a confrontation with reality. Virtualization not only solves the problem by shifting to reality, but also shifts reality to virtuality to creatively produce another problem. In other words, virtual is the driving force to create reality. Therefore, Levy’s concept is that virtuality is not as emptiness as Baudrillard discussed, but as a new possibility, it allows society members to play a creative role.
The virtual solves the problem of reality, and the reality creatively produces another virtual problem. Virtual becomes the driving force for creating reality. As a constant loop in which virtual leads to reality and reality leads to virtual, and this process of circulation is called the Mobius effect. It is discussed that this effect appears in the relationship between the public and the private, the relationship between the unique and the common, the relationship between the subjective and the objective, the relationship between the map and the territory, and the relationship between the author and the reader (Levy , 1988, p. 32). And he notes that viewers can produce their own meanings and create new cultures in space. Through this potential of virtualization, he finds the possibility of new humanization beyond human alienation or dehumanization.
Levy’s discussion focuses on the fact that in the space, visitors can derive their own meaning of cultural material and create new cultures accordingly. In other words, the virtuality of spatial content escapes the reality of everyday life, and visitors can explore the meaning of the past and human heritage or enjoy intellectual play (museum). It has the possibility of experiencing a fantasy (theme park) that is isolated from reality, or discovering new humanity (festival) through experience of tradition and various features, and socializing among people. Since spatial content is not a reality but a virtual space, viewers can break down all daily boundaries and experience new amusements in the space.
A ‘virtual’ amusement experience of spatial content
The virtual experience provided by spatial content is based on unusual daily routines. Already ‘Huizinga’ have discussed that play is a free, temporary activity, not a routine or real life (Huizinga, 1955, p.20). Roger Caillois also said that one of the characteristics of play is “to make you believe”, which is to make you aware of secondary reality, not real reality (Caillois, 2000, p.10).
In light of this point of view, first of all, the unusual daily routines of the museum is related to the experience of aura through the exhibition of a unique “original” that cannot be seen in reality. You must go to the place (museum) where the object is placed to see it. Exhibits are preserved through various machines, and through this, visitors can check the artistic values that cannot be felt in reality, and experience intellectual play accordingly.
Theme Park builds a virtual environment in more detail. First of all, the theme park artificially emphasizes reality and disconnection through natural objects and characters. There are fictional stories on the subject of didactic morality, dreams and love. In addition, the concept of time in reality is forgotten by the composition of day and night or seasonal changes, restoration of the past, manifestation of the future, and retro nostalgia devices of unknown time. In addition, all visual elements such as the character’s manifestation, various props, writing, stationery, and detailed design are also unusual things. In particular, directing designs through the use of colourful colours are strategies to make the world of animation, not reality, appear to be real.
The same goes for festivals. The festival provides visitors with a variety of viewing and experience elements that they could not see in their daily life, as well as experiencing local culture. In particular, experiential festivals are designed to escape from the rules and to escape from existing social relations, or to stimulate the nostalgia of the past to forget the desolate daily life of reality.
On the other hand, the festival is not always held, but only during a specific period or time. On the other hand, theme parks can be used almost all year round, and only the opening and closing times are fixed. Therefore, the theme park heightens the fence in the space design to remove the everyday constant feeling, and pays more attention to the exterior and blocking devices.
However, since the festival is held only at a specific time or period, the effect of the unusual experience can be enhanced even if there is no physical restriction on the composition of the space. This is because after a certain period of time, the space is ‘disappeared’, and it remains a normal space again. This spatio-temporal arrangement is a strategy to make spatial content unrealistic, thereby maximizing the immersion of the viewers.
6. VR Testing
I used Oculus Quest to conduct my first virtual reality project. With Oculus Quest, I will be developing for about a year, so I decided to work with a highly stable LTS version.
Before proceeding with the project, I have done download Oculus Quest application on my phone. This is due to the setting of developer mode. After that, I can register as a developer on the Oculus site.
Return to Unity, create a project and I downloaded ‘Oculus Integration’, an Oculus support tool from the Asset Store.
Into the sample scene I located objects around, and set ‘OVRPlayerController’ in the center of the scene.
And I have to change the platform to Android. Because, Oculus Quest run with Android-based mobile platform. In addition, in Preferences – XR settings should be changed to Oculus.
Then, if I connect the computer to the Oculus Quest and allow debugging, Unity project is installed as the ‘unknown application’ into the Oculus Quest.
And I found a virtual reality lecture provided by Oculus in the Unity Learn, Unity’s educational program. In the future, I will refer to this online course as a reference when proceeding with my project.
We often use the term “picture-like scenery” when looking at a great scenery or a great view. What is the ‘picture-like landscape’? Can we just simply say ‘beautiful’ and ‘it is like a picture’? If there is a difference between the two what is different? and which kind of picture corresponds to “picture” expressed in “picturesque”?
The word ‘Picturesque’, which can be interpreted as ‘as pictures’ or ‘pictureable’, was written by William Gilpin in ‘Observations on the River Wye, and Several Parts of South Wales, etc. Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty; made in the Summer of the Year, 1770’. This book is a guide for people going on a hobby trip to England, and he wants to explain ‘The face of a country by the rules of picturesque beauty’ in this book. It expanded and became more common with the cultural nostalgia for medieval Gothic and Celtic culture, along with the 18th-19th century romanticism.
Whitby Abbey is a place often used and drawn by romanticism painters who liked the ruins of medieval Gothic monasteries. Walter Crane, William Turner visited Whitby Abbey and painted the ruins there.
In fact, in order to understand the concept of ‘picturesque’, understanding of two aesthetic concepts, sublime and beauty, must be preceded. We often fall in love with the various infinite forms of nature. The landscape created by nature changes every moment, and at one point we see it and express it as ‘beautiful as a picture’. At this moment of fascination with nature, we have awe of nature, and this awe we feel can be called ‘noble beauty’ in another expression.
According to Edmund Burke and Kant’s definition, seductive beauty and sublime is different, and this sublime is not the result of rational judgment. Rene Loi Girardin, who wrote a book on the composition of the landscape, said “from the ‘picturesque’ scenery that charms the human eye, a philosophical scenery that charms the soul is created.” And, 18th century painter Joshua Reynolds defined picturesque as a “Picturesque is probably a synonym of ‘preference’.”
Claude Lorrain, who worked first in Rome in the 17th century, was the first painter to be faithful to the definition of ‘picturesque’ in the history of painting. Unlike Nicolas Poussin, who strictly and accurately portrays the landscape, Claude Lorrain effectively expresses the light that can be obtained by observing nature directly and harmoniously depicts the entire landscape through midtone tones.
His paintings represent Arcadia, the ideal and harmonious world spoken by Vergilius Maro, featuring classicism and lyrical atmosphere. After the 17th century, Claude Lorrain’s landscape has become a standard form of landscape painting to many artists, and his painting also called ‘becoming as like a picture’. In particular, his influence in landscape painting in England was strong, and Joseph Malrod William Turner’s tribute to Claude Laurent was famous enough to be passed down through numerous episodes.
The ancient culture tour called ‘Grand Tour’, which was popular in the 18th century, can be said to be the result of interest in this sublime and beauty. While royals or nobles traveled abroad and sought the romance of these ancient civilizations, in the general public class ‘Picturesque Tour’ was popular that leave the city and chase the local nature and scenery. The romantic tribute to the beauty of nature and its wild landscape which developed from literature, has developed greatly in the painting along with this boom in the public travel.
Like this, people tried to go with a guidebook wherever there was a beautiful scenery. Publishers wanted to make these guidelines more plausible, like the look of ancient Arcadia, and painters painted ‘picturesque landscape’ to meet the demands of those publishers. These painters and amateur writers who were called picturesque hunters, all gathered in the Lake District then holding ‘Claude Glasses’ looking for beautiful scenery.
‘Claude glass’ is a coated black convex mirror designed by Claude Lorrain. When we look at the landscapes through it makes overall colour looks low tone and the focus is slightly blurred. British people who experienced ‘Beautiful Scenery’ through Claude Laurent’s gradation technique and fantastic paintings were wandering all over the country in search of ‘Picturesque’ with this glass to find the same landscape painting he drew. Gilpin, a provider of ‘Claude Glass’ said the glass is “This glass lets us look at things in nature in a softer, more subdued colour. Like the colour of a great painter …”
In the 18th and 19th centuries began the industrialization of England in earnest. This rapid change in society quickly changed people’s views. Those who sought comfort in the beauty of nature, now they quickly adapted to the city where their lives were made. The painters escaped the static beauty of nature and found the city’s vitality and beauty in it. Many of these phenomena perspectives were seen from the painters who often traveled abroad.
Through Turner’s later work, the Venetian landscape, we can feel a little more romantic from the well-known city of Venice. Turner painted portray the steamship and he expressed as a detailed description, the steam, sky, and horizon emitted from the steamship are harmonized and expressed as if they were sucked into the picture. This style of painting was enough to signal the appearance of a new landscape.
In the long human history, people all dreamed of an ideal society, a good time to live, and continued to develop to achieve it. In particular, in the West, this world is represented as a mythical world called ‘Arcadia’. The development of ‘Picturesque’, which was the basis for the development of Western landscape painting, especially the modern British landscape, can be seen as the essence of this ‘Arcadia’ exploration.
However, this ‘Arcadia’ is not a stationary world. Just as the human desire to constantly pursue beautiful things has been transformed through every moment, the ideal society ‘Arcadia’ and the ‘Picturesque’ landscape that resembles him have also changed. Picturesque was limited to the typical form of romantic landscape painting including England in the 18th century, but this research for ‘Arcadia’ was inherited by impressionist painters of the 19th century. As Joshua Reynolds said, it still shows a ‘flavor of beauty’ that continues to us until today.
7. Show and Tell – 01
In the Show and Tell, which was held for the first time in the semester, was a place to present my themes and work progress. Where did my idea originate from, and plans for the future. I made a short presentation with my proposal and presented it. The presentation was started with the introduction of what is virtual garden, and talked about I am plan to work with Virtual Reality. I also talked about why I chose the theme ‘Garden’.
And the reason I worked project with virtual reality is that the user’s experience becomes more important in the form of art in the future and I think it can be done through a fully immersive virtual reality. And I am also described Jean Baudrillard and Pierre Levy, who discussed the topic of “virtual” that supports this theory of virtual reality. In addition, I briefly introduced the theme I chose, ‘Garden’. We also introduced the theory of gardening by HirschFeld’s and Humphrey Lepton’s. Finally, I was talked about the virtual reality device to I will used and my future studio project planning.